Human Sexuality: Sexual Anatomy

Human Sexuality – Chapter Two – Sexual Anatomy 

Vocabulary 

Male:

  • Penis: Primary male anatomical sexual structure.
  • Penile Glans: Tip of the penis, most sexually sensitive part.
  • Corona: Raised edge at the base of the penile glans.
  • Frenulum: Band of tissue connecting penile glans with the shaft of the penis.
  • Penile Shaft: Area of the penis between glans and abdomen.
  • Erection: Rigidity of the penis or clitoris resulting from an inflow of blood during sexual arousal.
  • Foreskin: Layer of skin covering glans of the penis.
  • Circumcision: Removing the foreskin.
  • Corpora Cavernosa: Two parallel chambers the run length of the penis, become engorged during erection.
  • Corpus Spongiosum: A middle chamber that runs the length of the penis into the glans, becomes engorged during erection.
  • Urethra: Tube running from the bladder to the urethral opening in both women and men carries urine, in men also carries semen.
  • Scrotum: The sac of thin skin and muscle containing testicles.
  • Spermatic Cords: Supports each testicle, contains vas deferens, nerves and muscles.
  • Testicles: Produce sperms cells and testosterone.
  • Gonads: Organs the produce cells (ova or sperm) for reproduction.
  • Testosterone: Male sex hormone responsible for sperm cells/sexual characteristics. 
  • Seminiferous Tubules: Tightly wound microscopic tubes that comprise the testicles and produce sperm cells.
  • Epididymis: Crescent shaped structure in each testicle, stores sperm cells as they mature.
  • Ejacualtion: Expulsion of semen through the penis.
  • Vas Deferens: Tube from the testicles into the mans body, transports mature sperm during ejaculation.
  • Anus: End of the digestive tract, excretions and sexually stimulating for some people.
  • Semen: Produced by prostate gland and seminal vesicles, that is ejaculated with sperm cells during orgasm.
  • Seminal Vesicle: A structure that produces fluid that becomes part of semen expelled during ejaculation.
  • Ejaculatory Duct: Continuation of the tube that carries semen into the urethra.
  • Prostate Gland: Gland in males that produces largest proportion of seminal fluid.
  • Prostatitis: Painful inflammation of the prostate gland.
  • Orgasm: Peak of sexual arousal 
  • Urethral Bulb: Section of urethra that expands with collected semen prior to expulsion, sensation of ejaculatory inevitability.
  • Cowper’s Glands: Gland near urethra that produces slippery substance during male sexual arousal.
  • Pre-Ejaculate: Fluid produced by cowper’s glands.

Female:

  • Vulva: Female external genitals.
  • Mons Veneris: Tissue on top of a woman’s pubic bone, usually covered with hair on an adult.
  • Labia Majora: Folds of skin and tissue extend from from mons, down the vulva, past vaginal opening to the perineum.
  • Labia Minora: Smooth hairless inner lips of the vulva.
  • Clitoral Gland: Outer end or tip of the clitoris.
  • Clitoris: Erectile sexual structure, clitoral glans + two shafts, primarily responsible for orgasm in most women.
  • Clitoral Hood: Tissue that partially or fully covers the clitoral glans.
  • Female Genital Mutilation (FGM): Removing most or part of the vulva to prevent sexual stimulation or pleasure.
  • Urethral Opening: Opening in the midsection of the vulva between clitoral glans and vulva, allows urine to pass from the body.
  • Urinary Tract Infection (UTI): Infection of the urethra, bladder or other urinary structure.
  • Hymen: Ring of tissue partially or fully covers the vaginal opening.
  • Hymenorrhaphy: Medical procedure to repair or reconstruct the hymen, to allow a woman to appear “virginal”.
  • Perineum: Area of skin between vulva/scrotum and anus.
  • Episiotomy: Surgical cutting of perineum during childbirth to allow easier birth, now know to ineffective.
  • Areola: Darker skin encircling each nipple, actually part of the skin.
  • Vagina: Flexible muscular canal or tube, 3-4 inches in length extends from vulva to cervix.
  • G-Spot: In some women an area of tissue on the anterior (upper) wall of the vagina, when stimulated may allow a woman to experience more intense orgasms and sexual arousal. 
  • Cervix: Lower end of uterus that connects to the vagina.
  • OS: Narrow passageway through the cervix, from vagina to uterus 
  • Pap Test: Cells from the cervix examined for cancer.
  • Human Papilloma Virus (HPV): Sexually transmitted virus, warts on genital or anal area and may lead to cancer.
  • Uterus: Flexible organ with strong muscle fibers that holds a fertilized egg, embryo and fetus from fertilization to birth.
  • Endometrium: Tissue lining the uterus thickens in anticipation of pregnancy, expelled during menstruation.
  • Endometriosis: Painful/Dangerous medical condition, endometrial cells migrate to the abdominal cavity from the uterus.
  • Fallopian Tubes: Carry ovum from ovaries to the uterus and in which fertilization occurs.
  • Ovum: Female reproductive cell stored in the ovaries, one every 28 days.
  • Ectopic Pregnancy: Fertilized ovum grows outside the uterus.
  • Ovaries: female organs, produce estrogen/progesterone and follicle cells mature into ova.
  • Estrogen: Hormone responsible for ovulation, endometrial development and development of female sex characteristics. 
  • Progesterone: Hormone responsible for release of ova and implanting fertilized egg into uterine wall.
  • Ovarian Cyst: Fluid filled sac on ovary, formed during normal ovulation, may swell and cause pain + abnormal bleeding.
  • Menarche: A girls first period.
  • Menstrual Cycle: Hormone controlled reproductive cycle in females.
  • Ovulation: Release of egg or ovum from ovary into fallopian tube.
  • Follicle Stimulating Horomone (FSH): Hormone stimulates development of a mature ovum.
  • Luteinizing Hormone (LH): Hormone works with FSH to control ovulation, estrogen and progesterone.
  • Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS): Symptoms may occur before a woman’s period  including irritability, depressed mood + bloating and cramping.
  • Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD): Intense and debilitating version of PMS.
  • Menopause: Between 45-55 ovaries produce less female hormones and periods cease.
  • Perimenopausal Changes: Physical and psychological changes leading upto menopause.

Source: Human Sexuality, Roger Hock, Ed. 4th 

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